Cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves diseases of the heart and vessels. CVD includes many different conditions like Coronary artery disease such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as heart attack), stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, abnormal heart rhythms, valvular heart disease, thromboembolic disease, venous thrombosis among others. The underlying mechanism can vary among the different diseases, but it is estimated that up to 90% of CVD can be preventable.
American college of sports medicine (ACSM), new preparticipation health screening for guidance of testing and prescription of exercise is one of several measures used for assessing cardiovascular risk.
The ACSM classifies individuals in 3 groups: low, moderate or high based on the presence or absence of risk factors, signs or symptoms and /or known cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal or metabolic disease.
Low risk = Asymptomatic and < 2 risk factors*. There is a low risk for Cardiac issues and risks when engaging in physical exercise. But remember to always take any new signs and symptoms of risk factors seriously.
Moderate risk = Asymptomatic ≥ 2 risk factors*. There’s an elevated risk of CVD and exercise according to a physical exercise recipe is recommended for increased health and lowered risk. Physical exercise recipe will maximize the benefits of regular exercise and minimize the risks.
High risk = Symptomatic*. You are not recommended to do exercise without clinical monitoring due to high risk to your health. During a program at Paliesius clinic we can monitor your heart activity in all exercise for maximum safety and result.
Risk factors and symptoms
- Age, men > 45 years women > 55years
- Family history of cardiovascular disease or sudden death
- Smoker or exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
- Sedentary lifestyle
*Signs and Symptoms:
- Pain or discomfort the chest, neck, jaw, arms that may result from ischemia
- Shortness of breath and/or unusual fatigue at rest or with mild exertion
- Orthopnea (dyspnea in a reclined position) or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
- Ankle edema
- Palpitations or tachycardia
- Intermittent pain sensations or cramping in the lower extremities
- Known heart murmur
- Acute myocardial infarction, acute thrombosis and/or recent surgery <1 month